Technical Corner

Seven Easy Steps to Installing Your Own Walkway,
Driveway and Patio
Without Mortar or Concrete


Here’s what you’ll need to get started:
Brick –Brick pavers are different from the brick used on house walls in that they aresolid, i.e., without holes. Sizes vary frommanufacturer to manufacturer, but they generally come in 4” x 8”, 3 5/8” x 7 5/8” and3 3/4” x 7 1/2”. Typical thicknesses run fromabout 1 1/4” to 2 1/4”. There are also manydifferent styles to choose from, with eachmanufacturer carrying its own selection.
Sand – This is what holds the brick inplace. Use only well-graded, washed con-crete sand.
Crushed Stone –This creates a strongbase. It may be called different things in different parts of the country—gravel, roadbase, or crusher run. Whatever the name, the stones should range in size from about 3/4” down to fine dust.
Border or Edging Materials(your choice)
   1.Brick
   2.Rigid plastic or metal specifically intended as edging material
   3.Wood: 2 x 4 or 4 x 4 pressure-treated, or natural redwoodFor wood, metal or rigid plastic, you’ll needmetal spikes that are at least 8” long.
String and Wooden Stakes(for aligning brickwork)
Tools
         1.Flat shovel
         2.Wheelbarrow
         3.Garden hose with fine spray nozzle
         4.Hard garden rake
         5.Broad-blade chisel, brick splitter or masonry saw for cutting and fitting the brick (the last two are readily              available for rent at your local rental store or brick distributor)
         6.Carpenter’s level
         7.Wood “screed” strip—a 2 x 4, at least 3’long (used to create a uniform sand bed depth)
         8.Electric drill and appropriate size bit (for wood edging only)
         9.Trowel
         10.Broom
         11.Plate compactor (rented)

Step 1: Determining How Much You’ll Need
Pavers

1.Determine the square feet::
(length xwidth) of the area you want to pave.
2.Estimate the number of paversneeded:

For 4”x8” pavers—4.5 pavers per sq. ft.
For 3-5/8”x7-5/8” pavers—5.2 pavers per sq. ft.
For 3-3/4”x7-1/2” pavers—5.1 pavers per sq. ft. Add 5% extra for chipped or broken pavers.Example: A10’by 20’patio = 200 sq. ft. x 4.5 pavers/sq. ft. = 900 paversAn additional 5% (900 x .05) = 45 paversTotal needed so far = 945 paversTypically, you should also include an additional 1-1/2 bricks per linear foot of edge for cutting.

Example:
            linear footage = 10+20+20+10 = 60
            linear feet
                        60 x 1.5 = 90 pavers
                       945 + 90 = 1035 total pavers needed for the job
Edging Material

1.Measure the linear foot of openedges—those not up against a house,curb, driveway,etc. This is thenumber of feet of edging material you will need. If you plan to edge with brick standing on end (soldier position), calculateone brick for each 4” of edge.
2.For wood or rigid plastic
edging, plan on one stake for each 2 to 3 feet of edge.
Sand and Crushed Stone

      1.The sand and crushed stone you will usein your project are measured in cubic yards(1 cubic yard = 27 cubic feet).
      2.For anytype of paving project, whetherpatio, walkway or driveway, you will alwaysuse a 1” depth of sand. To determine thenumber of cubic yards of sand, multiply thesquare footage by .00289.Example: 200 sq. ft. patio x .00309 = 0.62 cubic yards of sand
      3.The amount of crushed stone you will needdepends on your type of paving project:For light duty projects—such as walkwaysor patios—you will use a 4” depth ofcrushed stone. To determine the cubicyards of crushed stone needed to create a4” base, multiply the total square footageby .01235.
For heavy duty projects—such as drive-ways—you will use an 8” depth of crushedstone. To determine the cubic yards ofcrushed stone needed to create an 8”base, multiply the total square footage by.02469.

Example: For a 200 sq. ft. patio, you willwant a 4” base of crushed stone.200 sq ft. x .01235 = 2.47 cubicyards ofcrushed stone

Example:For a 200 sq. ft. driveway, youwillwant an 8” base of crushed stone.200 sq. ft. x .02469 = 4.94 cubic yards of crushed stone

(In areas of extreme wetness or severefreeze/thaw, you may need a deeper base.Consult your local brick distributor.)

Step 2: Preparing the Area
      1.Check with your local utility companies to determine the location of underground lines.
      2.After you’re sure that the area you intend to pave has proper drainage(1/4” per foot slope away from founda-tions or other permanent structures),outline the area with stakes and string,and be sure to include the width of youredging material.
      3.Use a flat shovel to remove onlyenough sod or dirt to provide a flat, level surface upon which to place thecrushed stone base. It is important thatdirt or excess soil that is removed and re-installed should be firmly settled witha plate compactor for an even base.

Step 3: Installing the Base
      1.After compacting the soil, place thecrushed stone base into the excava-tion. Using a plate compactor, tampdown no more than 4” (depth) of basematerial at one time. This is a criticalstep—if not done carefully and thor-oughly, the bricks will move over time.
      2.The base material should be slightlydamp when compacting.

Step 4: Framing the Borders
      1.The border, or edging system,is necessary to insure that your brickpaving remains firmly in place andstays beautiful for years. Begin byinstalling, but not anchoring, your edg-ing. Experiment now with the patternyou’ve chosen by temporarily layingbrick around the edge of the paving.(Note that complex designs, like her-ringbone, may require significantamounts of cut brick.)
      2.Once you’re satisfied with placement,anchor the edging by driving spikes atleast 8” into the base every 2 to 3 feet.For wood edging, drill holes and drivethe spikes through the middle of thewood. For brick edging, dig a trenchdeep enough so that the top edge ofthe edging brick will be flush with thebrick surface of your finished project.
      3.One border can remain unanchored until final brick installation to insure atight fit. Now, remove the bricks you temporarily installed.

Step 5: Installing the Sand Bed
      1.For a walkway or other fairly narrow project, use 1” outside diameter pipe or cut two wood strips to the desired height of sand (1”). Place them on either side of the pavingarea. For a wider project, like a patio,place the strips about 3 feet apart.
      2.Now, fill the area with sand.The sand can be dampened with a fine mist of water prior to installation to eliminate voids.
      3.After you pour the sand,use the pipe or wood strips as rails on which to run your “screed” board to insure a uniform sand depth of 1” (Figure A). Be careful not to walk in or disturb the leveled sand.
      4.Remove the screed rail sand fill the indentations with loose sand. Level with a broom or trowel.

Step 6: Laying the Brick Pavers
      1.Start at a corner—if possible, onethat includes an edge such as a house,curb, sidewalk or other fixed edge. Lay one run of brick from the corneralong the two adjacent borders (Figure B). Set the brick on the sand.Don’t press or hammer them into place.They should fit snugly, with about 1/16”-1/8” gap between each brick. As you work, be sure to work from thelaid brick, not the sand. If you disturb the virgin sand, re-level it with a broomor trowel before laying more brick.
      2.Continue to lay the brick in your pattern, working from your starting corner to the unanchored edge (Figure C). With the original perimeterbrick as a reference, put a string lineacross the front of your laying edge(every 2 to 3 feet) to maintain align-ment (Figure D). If the pattern wanders somewhat, a trowel, screwdriver, or wide-blade putty knife can be used to make small adjustments. Don’t beconcerned with small gaps between thepaving brick—you’ll fill them with sand.
      3.Be sure to check the level and alignment of the brickwork frequentlyduring installation.
      4.Once all the full brick have beeninstalled up to the final, unanchorededge, cut or saw the remaining brick tocomplete the bond pattern—but insurethat the final edge brick are no smallerthan two inches in width.
      5.Anchor the final border.

Step 7: Finishing Up
      1.Inspect your work,making final adjustments in brick height and jointalignment. Then sweep dry sand into all the joints to lock the brick into place.
      2.To further set the brick,you may want to use the plate compactor to set the brick and gently tamp it down. If a compactor is used, spread a layerof sand over your pavers to preventcontact between the brick and the com-pactor.
      3.The sand you swept into the joints will gradually settle. You shouldsweep additional sand into the joints asnecessary over the next few rainstorms until the bricks are fully stabilized.
Square Patterns :
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Very unofficially, Step 8
This is the best part. Take a welldeserved rest and feast your eyes onyour own creation. You’ve completed apaving project that will enhance thevalue of your home and, since brickonly looks better with age, you canenjoy for years to come.

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